There are a wide variety of forklifts in battery cars, but all types of forklifts are basically composed of the following four parts:
(1) power part. To provide power for forklift, usually installed at the rear of the forklift, which also ACTS as a counterweight.
(2) the chassis. Receive power from the power plant to make the forklift move and ensure its normal walking.
(3) working part. Used for forking and lifting cargo.
(4) electrical equipment.
Different types of forklifts are formed due to the differences in the structures and mounting positions of most of the four forklifts that make up forklifts. The balanced weight forklift is one of the most common forms of forklift. Let's take this kind of forklift truck as an example and introduce the composition of each part of the forklift truck.
1. Dynamic part
Most of the internal combustion forklift is powered by reciprocating piston internal combustion engine. It has gasoline engine, diesel engine and liquid petroleum gas machine; The power device of electric forklift is composed of battery and dc series motor. In recent years, new forklifts have been developed, powered by dual fuel or dual power.
A driving system is a device that receives power and transfers it to a driving system. It generally has mechanical transmission and hydraulic mechanical transmission two kinds. The former consists of a friction clutch, a gear transmission, a universal drive and a main transmission and differential in the drive axle. The latter replaces the friction clutch with a hydraulic converter, and the rest is the same as the former. In recent years, a new type of forklift has come out, using a full hydraulic transmission system. Reduce transmission components and ensure reliability.
2. Chassis part
The driving system is a device to ensure the rolling operation of the forklift and support the whole forklift, which is composed of supports, axle, wheels and suspension devices. The front axle of the forklift is the drive axle, which is to increase the axle load of the front axle during the load-carrying, so as to improve the quality of adhesion on the drive wheel and increase the ground adhesion, so as to ensure that the driving force of the engine can be fully developed. The rear bridge is the steering bridge. The steering device is located in the front of the driver, and the lever, such as the gear lever, is placed on the right side of the driver seat.
The steering system is used to make the forklift move in the direction decided by the driver. The steering system can be divided into mechanical steering system and dynamic steering system according to the energy required by the steering. The former is powered by the driver's energy and consists of three parts: the steering gear, the steering drive mechanism and the steering mechanism. The latter is the combination of the driver's energy and engine power for the steering energy steering device. Under normal circumstances, the forklift steering requires only a small amount of power from the driver, most of which is powered by the engine. Oversteer actuator provided. However, the driver should be able to carry out the vehicle steering task independently when the booster fails. In the operation of forklift truck, the steering and walking are variable. In order to reduce the driver's control burden, the internal combustion forklift truck mostly adopts the power steering device. There are three kinds of power steering devices: integral power steering, semi-integral power steering and power booster.
The braking system is the system to slow down or stop the forklift. It consists of a brake and a brake transmission mechanism. According to braking energy, braking system can be divided into human braking system, dynamic braking system and servo braking system. The former takes the driver's energy as the braking energy; The potential energy in the form of pressure or hydraulic pressure, which is completely converted by the power of the engine, is the brake energy. The latter is a combination of the former and the middle.
On the balanced forklift truck, the rear part of the forklift truck is equipped with the balance weight to balance the quality of goods at the front part of the forklift truck, the power equipment (internal combustion engine) or the battery, which is usually installed at the rear part of the forklift truck to play a part in balancing.
3. Work part
The working part is the direct working mechanism of forklift handling operation, which is divided into five parts as follows:
(1) fetch tools. It is a variety of working equipment represented by the fork for fork, clamping, scooping cargo.
(2) lifting shelves. Used to install cargo forks or other work equipment, and drag the cargo up and down together.
(3) the door frame. It is the skeleton of the working device, most of which is mounted on the door frame. The two-section door frame is composed of outer door frame and inner door frame which can be raised and lowered. Three-section door frame is composed of three door frames: inner, middle and outer.
(4) door frame tilting mechanism. The front and back tilt of the door frame is mainly composed of inclined oil cylinder.
(5) lifting mechanism. Drag up and down power and traction equipment of the cargo. It is mainly composed of sprocket, chain and lifting oil cylinder which drives the lifting rack.
(6) hydraulic control system. It is the lifting and lifting of the cargo and the tilt of the door frame as well as other actions completed by the hydraulic system to achieve timely control of the total device. It is composed of hydraulic components, piping and control mechanism.
4. Electrical equipment
The electrical equipment mainly consists of battery, forklift lighting, various warning, warning signal devices and other electrical components and circuits. The battery fork is provided with a series driven dc motor; Internal combustion engine forklift has electric starter; In addition, the forklift gasoline engine also has the high - pressure electric spark ignition device.